Monday, September 30, 2019
Introduction The McGee Cake Company has been in business since early 2005. The company is a sole proprietorship. They produce a variety of full line cakes and other cake including cheesecake, lemon pound cake, and double-iced, double-chocolate cake. In the past several years, the company has experienced sales increases due to features in magazines and this led to the company receiving orders from all over the world. Doc and Lyn McGee both had regular jobs and formed the company mainly due to outside interest. However, with the increase in sales and demand for their product worldwide they both quite their regular jobs and hired additional staff to handle the influx of the recent demands. The company still faced issues with cash flow and capacity and the company continued to produce as many product as its assets would allow. The demand for the goods and services have become to great for their current infrastructure and the company is looking for business options (Ross, Westerfield, & Jordan, 2013). As mentioned previously, the company is currently operating as a sole proprietorship. According to our text, a sole proprietorship is a business owned by one person and itÃ¢â¬â¢s the simplest business to start and it the least regulated form of organization. The McGeeÃ¢â¬â¢s keep all the profits in this type of business. However, the owner has unlimited liability which means creditors can look beyond business assets to personal assets for payment of debts. Sole proprietorship are limited to the ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s life span which means which in the end hampers the business able to exploit new opportunities (Ross, Westerfield, & Jordan, 2013, p. 14). A limited liability corporation (LLC) operates and is taxed like a partnership but retain the limited liability for owners, basically making it a hybrid of a partnership and corporation. The Internal Revenue Service maintains oversight of LLC operations and if a business does not meet certain criteria it will be faced with double taxation penalties (Ross, Westerfield, & Jordan, 2013, p. 6). There are several advantages and disadvantages of changing the McGee Cake Company from a sole proprietorship to a corporation. A corporation is the most important form of business in the Unites States. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a business created as a distinct legal entity composed of one of more individuals orÃ entities. Personal assets are protected from lawsuits and debt collections. Corporations can borrow money, be sued, and even be a general or limited partner in a partnership owning stock in other corporations. A disadvantage is a corporation is legal person; it is not exempt from taxes. The corporation profits are taxed twice: once at the corporate level when they are earned and again at the personal level when they are paid out (Ross, Westerfield, & Jordan, 2013, pp. 5-6). Conclusion Based on the information provided by the McGee Cake Company and the recent expansion of their business. I think the best type of business for their new growth would be a limited liability corporation (LLC). In a LLC, members are protected from personal liability for business decisions or actions of the LLC. This means that if the LLC incurs debt or is sued, membersÃ¢â¬â¢ personal assets are usually exempt which is similar to the liability protections afforded to shareholders of a corporation. Lastly, the start up costs for a LLC will not Ã¢â¬Å"break the bankÃ¢â¬ and they can be easy to operate (www.sba.gov/content/limited-liability-corporation-llc). References Ross, S. A., Westerfield, R. W., & Jordan, B. D. (2013). Fundamentals of Corporate Finance. New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill Irwin. www.sba.gov/content/limited-liability-corporation-llc. (n.d.). Retrieved May 10, 2014, from U.S. Small Business Administration: www.sba.gov
Sunday, September 29, 2019
In these harsh economic period, dealing with the ethical, legal, and regulatory concerns associated with B2B and B2C websites and the free flow of information is a main issue for both kinds of e-businesses. For both of these websites, there are security issues, site policies, applicable law, disclaimers of warranties and limitations, and conditions of use.In any type of business, whether it is traditional or e-business, ethics creates specific judgments regarding what is right or wrong, meaning, it makes assertions concerning what ought to be made or what ought not to be made. As all of us know, ethics is universal and is applied to anything that has relationships and interactions with individuals. Ethics is needed to steer business from harming and damaging the general public.Ã Moreover, ethics is likewise tied with legalities to help protect and secure its codes and principles. Consequently, ethics and legality works together to produce a peaceful environment in doing and transa cting businessAs compared with B2CÃ¢â¬â¢s websites, the audience and clients of B2BÃ¢â¬â¢s websites are not individual people since these individuals are members of a company. When conducting business you need to be aware who has authority, for example, for signing an NDA or placing an order on behalf of a company. Because the relationship is more extensive, every time you exchange information.Lately, concerns such as identity theft are rising for the reason that websites are not secured enough. Information and data has to be cautiously tracked and identified as confidential or general business or confidential when needed. Regarding ethics, the correct behavior of participants are characteristically described in regulatory codes formulated and implemented by commercial standard groups, trade associations, and the professions.Legal and ethical issues in B2b and B2c websites are very much alike, even though victims in B2B have more advantage when settling legal concerns given that procedures are extremely black and white. It is a fact that ethics is founded on universal values that do not alter if you are transacting business with an individual or with a company. The lone difference is that a B2B website has special rules and regulations if it concerns kids younger than 13 years of age. Moreover, due to the fact that B2B depends on the sharing of mutual information, ethics is very important. Not like consumers keeping business in B2C, in B2B, a victim does not have a great deal to do, just to ask for a third partyÃ¢â¬â¢s assistance to solve their problems with B2c websites. Moreover, in B2B, it is easy to identify what took place and who is responsible and accountable for what happened in a B2B website.It is exceedingly significant from a legal B2B and B2C perspective to ensure that the written words and what is depicted regarding a company are factual.Ã Another important legal issue concerns intellectual property rights. Since concerns come up regardin g marketing ethics and the significance of understanding a business for Internet, there are probable areas and opportunities for disclosing trade secrets or intellectual property if appropriate B2B and B2C ethical behavior is not complied with.Meanwhile, in terms of legal and regulatory issues, B2B and B2C websites should see to it that they do not violate and commit copyright infringement, identity theft, identity fraud, and they do not patronize and tolerate consumer survey scams and hoaxes and advertising and keyword scams.Lastly, with the prevalence of PDA communication devices and new wireless web mail from cell phones, the Internet will be definitely touching and affecting more lives than ever before. Hence, privacy and security issues together with e-business ethical, legal and regulatory issues will become more widespread since it will become increasingly difficult to fathom who you can trust online; with all the illegal and unethical online e-business email scams, and Inter net marketing advertising frauds. #ReferencesFerrell, O.Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Introduction to Business Ethics Issues.Ã¢â¬ Ã E-Ethics Center, Colorado State University, College of Business.Harris, L. and L. Spence.Ã Ã¢â¬Å"The Ethics of eBanking.Ã¢â¬ Ã Journal of Electronic Commerce Research Vol. 3 #2, 2002.Warholic, J.Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Importance of Ethics on the Internet.Ã¢â¬ Ã Professional web Services, Inc.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Ashton DeShazier Essay My name is Ashton DeShazier. I was born in Selmer, Tennessee. I am now from the small town of Lexington, Tennessee, but my dreams have never been small. I cannot remember ever wanting any other career than that of a doctor. Soon after my birth, Mother became a single mom. She had to work full-time to support us. I learned early the value of hard work, but this is just a small part of what she has given me. Throughout my life, my mother has been there for me at all times, through all circumstances, and especially when no one else was. She is my Rock of Gibraltar whenever a problem occurs. She has taught me the importance of motherhood, dedication to work, and loyalty to those you love. I learn quickly, and academics come easily to me. I also began setting other goals for myself in elementary school. In the sixth grade at Caywood Elementary, my goal was to be a cheerleader. I not only met, but also exceeded my goal by becoming the Junior Varsity Cheerleading squad captain. I continued in the sport of cheer leading, once again becoming captain in the eighth grade. I was chosen for the Junior Beta Club in seventh and eighth grade as well. During this same time period, I became a member of Ã¢â¬Å"Show Choir,Ã¢â¬ a musical group at Caywood that performed Christmas and spring shows for the community-at- large, and the elderly in nursing homes in particular. My junior high years ended with me joining Drama, receiving one of the leading parts in an important play, and receiving the honor of Homecoming Princess. I began my high school career at Lexington High School. I continued to set goals for myself, but now with college in my sites. I reaffirmed my dedication to becoming a doctor, knowing I would never let this dream slip away. Vanderbilt is looking for prospective students who are leaders. I demonstrated throughout high school that leadership is one of my greatest assets. I attended Lexington High School the entire four years. From my freshman through my senior years, I was on the Competition Dance Team and an active member in D. A. R. E. For three years I was in both Drama and Beta, an organization requiring a cumulative GPA of at least 95. My ability to accept more responsibility resulted in me committing to additional groups and committees throughout the four years. These groups included World Travelers, Spanish Club(as President), Beta Upsilon Mu Sorority, Senior Committee, and Annual Staff. Additionally, I joined Renaissance. Admittance is based on academic excellence, superior behavior, and attendance records. I am a member of both the Honor Society and the Future Community and Career Leaders of America(FCCLA). At the end of my junior year, it was time to choose my classes for the next year. While many of my friends chose to end their high school years with easy classes, I chose many of the hardest classes offered. I knew that to achieve my goals of attending Vanderbilt and medical school, I could not take the easy road. I know the work will be hard and the challenges great, and I am anxious to prove myself worth. Acceptance at Vanderbilt is very important to me, and I will not accept anything less. I have considered many different schools, but I always return to Vanderbilt University as my only choice. What attracts me most is VanderbiltÃ¢â¬â¢s high standards and reputation for excellence, traits I have honed and maintained throughout my schooling. Preparing to become a doctor means many more years of education, and I must learn from the best. My name is Ashton DeShazier. I was born in Selmer, Tennessee. I am now from the small town of Lexington, Tennessee, but my dreams have never been small. I cannot remember ever wanting any other career than that of a doctor. Soon after my birth, Mother became a single mom. She had to work full-time to support us. I learned early the value of hard work, but this is just a small part of what she has given me. Throughout my life, my mother has been there for me at all times, through all circumstances, and especially when no one else was. She is my Rock of Gibraltar whenever a problem occurs. She has taught me the importance of motherhood, dedication to work, and loyalty to those you love. I learn quickly, and academics come easily to me. I also began setting other goals for myself in elementary school. In the sixth grade at Caywood Elementary, my goal was to be a cheerleader. I not only met, but also exceeded my goal by becoming the Junior Varsity Cheerleading squad captain. I continued in the sport of cheer leading, once again becoming captain in the eighth grade. I was chosen for the Junior Beta Club in seventh and eighth grade as well. During this same time period, I became a member of Ã¢â¬Å"Show Choir,Ã¢â¬ a musical group at Caywood that performed Christmas and spring shows for the community-at- large, and the elderly in nursing homes in particular. My junior high years ended with me joining Drama, receiving one of the leading parts in an important play, and receiving the honor of Homecoming Princess. I began my high school career at Lexington High School. I continued to set goals for myself, but now with college in my sites. I reaffirmed my dedication to becoming a doctor, knowing I would never let this dream slip away. Vanderbilt is looking for prospective students who are leaders. I demonstrated throughout high school that leadership is one of my greatest assets. I attended Lexington High School the entire four years. From my freshman through my senior years, I was on the Competition Dance Team and an active member in D. A. R. E. For three years I was in both Drama and Beta, an organization requiring a cumulative GPA of at least 95. My ability to accept more responsibility resulted in me committing to additional groups and committees throughout the four years. These groups included World Travelers, Spanish Club(as President), Beta Upsilon Mu Sorority, Senior Committee, and Annual Staff. Additionally, I joined Renaissance. Admittance is based on academic excellence, superior behavior, and attendance records. I am a member of both the Honor Society and the Future Community and Career Leaders of America(FCCLA). At the end of my junior year, it was time to choose my classes for the next year. While many of my friends chose to end their high school years with easy classes, I chose many of the hardest classes offered. I knew that to achieve my goals of attending Vanderbilt and medical school, I could not take the easy road. I know the work will be hard and the challenges great, and I am anxious to prove myself worth. Acceptance at Vanderbilt is very important to me, and I will not accept anything less. I have considered many different schools, but I always return to Vanderbilt University as my only choice. What attracts me most is VanderbiltÃ¢â¬â¢s high standards and reputation for excellence, traits I have honed and maintained throughout my schooling. Preparing to become a doctor means many more years of education, and I must learn from the best. Ashton DeShazier. (2017, Mar 03).
Friday, September 27, 2019
Identify Musical Ideas - Assignment Example The tune provided as the first idea is quite soulful and soft. Upon listening the first musical idea, i.e. A, it can be determined that counter time of the music was at 7th second of the beginning of the idea. Again, at the end time of the idea, the counter time was in the 14th minute. Similarly, for the musical idea of B, the first counter time, which was at the beginning of the idea is at 6th second while the counter time for the later end was at the 14th second (Connect for Education, Ã¢â¬Å"The Concepts of Unity and VarietyÃ¢â¬ ). To understand the process better, the letter of musical notation can be considered to be from A to G with the pitch being in ascending order from A to G. The musical letter for A can be in the form of A Ã ¶ D Ã ¶ E Ã ¶ F Ã ¶ B Ã ¶ E Ã ¶ F Ã ¶ G Ã ¶ B Ã ¶ A. Again, the musical letter for idea B can be in the form of A Ã ¶ D Ã ¶ E Ã ¶ F Ã ¶ A Ã ¶ D Ã ¶ G Ã ¶ A. The order of the first idea started from a low high but ended on a high note. Idea A stated from 2nd second and ended at 13th second. For idea 2, the pattern was low to high and it ended with high as well. For idea B, the starting point was 30th second and the ending point was 43rd second. The composer used timbre, which involves the use of different instruments for making the song while dynamics was used to present diverse level of volume (Connect for Education, Ã¢â¬Å"The Concepts of Unity and VarietyÃ¢â¬ ). Thus, as can be apparently observed, the components of the chorus, Ã¢â¬Å"Here the Conquring Hero Com esÃ¢â¬ can be observed as based on the philosophies of unity and variety, consoling the minds and the persona of the listeners as expected from a rich music as
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Identity - Essay Example nvolves the readers through emotions, in certain cases the individual starts following the character depicted in the book or movie and correlate real life with the life represented by their role model in the novel or movie. In certain cases such perceptions provide a great impact on the developing conscience of the individual. This revolutionizes thoughts and outlook as the condition of brainpower is full of strenuous contemplations. A couple of books called "Garcia Girls Lost Their Accents" by Julia Alvarez and "Farewell to Manzanar" by Jeanne Wakatsuki are two outstanding books illustrating the distinctiveness an individual possess. To some extent the novels imposes thoughts that changes the outlook and provide the courage to survive in difficult situation. The novels inflict how to maintain stability and comfort in tough times (Identity). I personally feel enlightened after reading the books called "The Five people I meet in Heaven" by Mitch Albom, this made me feel that how important my life is for me, what difference I made in my group, in my community, in my society and what am I contributing! It simply made me feel my worth, my self esteem and hence made me realize that everyone in the universe is important, everyone around me is important and what really does not matter to me could bring a remarkable change in others life. It has really changed my outlook and personality. I became more concerned with others, forgive and forget what harm others have done, locate deliverance, the book has magical power as it has made me more concerned about sufferings of others. All this helped me to adjust in a different environment as I am now an international student who is coping up within a different cultural circumstances. I like to listen to the songs to de-stress myself, had enough experience of life and people as I have been visiting more of places, interacting with different groups of individuals belonging to different cultural and ethical backgrounds but above
Agency - Essay Example People in power tend to manipulate those below them by controlling how they think and act. Foucault uses the Panopticon to represent power laboratory, which uses the staff and the prisoners as experiment specimens. The Panopticon and the town stricken by plague represent transformational changes of the disciplinary measure. The Plagued town scenario is an exceptional case, where power is used to eradicate an unusual evil. While the Panopticon represents a comprehensive prototype of human operation, a feature that defines day to day power relations. The Panopticon happens not to be a dream building structure, but a layout of power minimized to its ideal nature. It perfects power functioning by multiplying the number of individuals under power control, and minimizing power operators. Power is made more effective and economical. Considering the works done by Susan Bordo and Richard Miller in their essays Beauty (Re) discovers the male Body and The Dark Night of Soul respectively, several aspects of agencies are being discussed. By using Foucault way of thinking on the essays of Bordo and Miller, we can be able to deduce how Foucault might treat the particular materials used choose for their examples. For instance, taking one example from Bordo in her essay Beauty (Re) discovers the male Body; she discusses about how the agency of men as supposed to be masculine and in charge has taken a different route whereby males are assuming ladies position. Taking an example from this essay about the advertisement she came across in the New York Times Magazines, in actual life setting, a male is supposed to have power over a woman a case depicted (Brodo 169). In this example where a young man poses with a Calvin Klein labeled undergarment but has a posture reserved for women. The eyes of the young man looks down from the camera as opposed to facing the camera as men do. It depicts a power that has given its
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Health and Safety in the Construction Industry - Essay Example The requirements could be in the form of legal provisions of the state, environment protection measures or in the form of the stipulated needs of the customer. In order to safeguard the interests of the workers, the respective governments come out with measures safeguarding the interests of the employees. The Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974, also known as HASAW or HSW, is one such legislative measure adopted by the government of UK, which covers occupational health and safety in the United Kingdom1. A company requires able people to carry on with the business in the best possible manner. Therefore, the relationship between the two parties is of mutual benefit and for the relationship to work, both parties have to agree to certain terms of agreements. The construction industry is no exception. The construction industry is known as a labour intensive industry with people from different skill levels contributing their bit towards the project. There are the labours who might not be educated enough to know about what's happening around them. Quite often, while working against time to meet tight deadlines or to save on the costs, the workforce happens to be at a disadvantage. The agency carrying out the construction activity and the company having accepted the terms for the project are required to manage the project in such a manner that the project is completed and handed over to the customer within the stipulated time period, without any untoward incident/s. Project Management as such is the planning, organizing, directing and controlling of company resources for a relatively short-term objective that has been established to complete specific goals and objectives (Kerzner, 1995). Producing high levels of productivity and quality and low levels of uncertainty additionally are objectives of project management. The uncertainty arises mostly out of ill planning and unwarranted delays on account of a reasons like disputes or accidents. The successful construction project management will therefore be the management of all the factors that surround and enable the construction as well as the technical work to be accomplished. This form of management as such is a set of principles, practices, and techniques applied to lead project team and control project schedule, cost, and performance risks in order to delight the customers. The customer will feel delighted when the project management team displays its expertise in the planning and successful i mplementation of the project and hands over the finished product in a hassle free manner. In one of its report the National Audit Office (NAO) has enlisted some barriers which need to be overcome and bring about changes in attitudes within the construction industry towards improving the health and safety performance. The NAO report states that, "Under health and safety legislation those who create risk are legally responsible for controlling and managing that risk" (NAO, 2004). This specifies that the responsibility of coming out with measures for controlling and management of the risk lies with everyone involved in the supply chain. In fact in today's context when globalisation and competition happens to be a rule rather than exception, every company desires to retain the best working hands while making all efforts to remain out of controversies. The reach and impact of media
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Peer to Peer Networking In Business - Research Paper Example Peer to Peer Networking in Business Chapter 1 Introduction Background Peer to peer networks have attracted a significant amount of attention in the press as popular network architecture and this brings the need for a clear understanding of this application. Peer to peer (P2P) technology has seen an increase in usage since 21st century with both beneficial and destructive practices depending on which end of technology one is at. Millions of people are routinely trading in this digital in search of audio files, video, software, music games, and movies thanks to P2P technology. The increase in demand of the users and businesses is initiating the need for exploring the ways in which this digital content can best satisfy human wants in business to achieve maximum profitability. It is clear that p2p systems can either create or destroy huge amounts of contents depending on various conditions of use during file sharing process thus should be monitored keenly. The technology is beneficial to business development and application due to good profit returns and the ease associated with it use. P2P file sharing is important application in the conventional world following office application and business ethics in terms of benefits for business ideas and business ethics in terms of infringement of other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. ... Moreover, this technology can also be used in business to lower the cost of computing power following its capacity to enable parallel processing of information. Since this is a new technology in business, it has its pros and cons considering the nature of its application that is unique to business. Legally, the issue of copyright infringement has been the debate concerning P2P, application that is viewed by some law enforcers to be copyright infringement. Statement of the problem A number of businesses are in the verge of boosting their sales and efficiency of their business models to achieve good profits and this call for technology application. This has prompted some business owners to apply the best and latest techniques in business application, which includes P2P networking in business to enable them, compete profitable with other firms. The increased application of P2P technology has seen many business firms on the wrong side of the law and thus the aim of research is to establi sh whether businesses are comfortable with P2P technology. Purpose of the study The legal and ethical issues, which arises from the continuous use of P2P technology needs a careful study aimed in justifying the application and the use of this new technology in business networking. The business people need to get approval from research if the benefit of P2P application outweighs loses so that they can continue with its application. Hypothesis The review of related literature shows that there is less need collaboration between the business owners, copyright owners and the legal fraternity. The collaboration should be aimed at enabling business owners to make profits using P2P in such a way
Monday, September 23, 2019
Use of Intelligence in World War II - Essay Example The Second World War was the most extensive war that history documents spanning six years (Inaba, 2008). The war started in 1939 and ended in 1945 involving vast global nations that later formed Allies and Axis, two antagonizing military alliances (Caruana & Rockoff, 2007). Intelligence played a significant role towards the success of the attacks that the antagonizing alliances launched against each other. Intelligence implies the gathering, analysis and application of knowledge to offer guidance and direction to a military alliance. The research herein presents the use and significance of intelligence during the Second World War. Similar to the Allies, the GermansÃ¢â¬â¢ success attributes to their communications intelligence (Guglielmo, 2008). The nation established listening posts in Spain and traded cipher information with Italy, Japan, Hungary, and Finland. Germany broke ciphers of all the nations with an exception to the Soviet Union. The American military attachÃ © in Cairo was their lieutenant general Erwin RommelÃ¢â¬â¢s reliable source of information in North Africa. The reports and code-breaking intelligence helped the German navy to know the exact locations of British ships prior to their 1940 Norway invasion (Blewett, 2000). Besides, Germans had the knowledge of intercepting sensitive communications. he nationÃ¢â¬â¢s radio intelligence post in the Netherlands monitored and timely descrambled the radiotelephone conversation between Franklin Roosevelt, American President, and Winston Churchill, British Prime Minister.
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Surviving influences with sense of self Essay Although many people tend to think that media and advertising are two of the worst culprits that are destroying good moral values, what is right and wrong has always been a subject of debate in history depending on who perceives it. The cowboys and the Indians both had reasons to live in the same territory but had to fight for their rights. Western conventional medicine dominated the east but Westerners use Chinese Traditional Medicine. It is not very easy to see what is right or wrong and even if one does perceive what is correct, there is no guarantee that he or she will do the proper thing. OneÃ¢â¬â¢s strength of character and moral values are needed to establish a sense of self that will fight the bad influence that society usually promotes. It is very easy to influence someone with poor a poor sense of self. Convincing words and vivid pictures leading to a certain desirable outcome can easily sway someone who lacks backbone to do what is being asked. The mind can easily form pictures of what could be desirable and easily sway one to making decisions Ã¢â¬â whether good or bad. Poor self-esteem can assist advertising in making false promises. In the article entitled, Ã¢â¬Å"In the Shadow of the Image,Ã¢â¬ written by Stuart and Elizabeth Ewen (2006 p. 207), the authors mentioned the disillusionment of Frank Miller who watched John Wayne movies and got influenced into taking up his own cause against Southeast Asians who simply triggered a bullet on his chest to his dismay. The movies he had watched were meant to boost its audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s self-esteem but it went further to influence MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s way of thinking and perception of other cultural minorities. Due to his poor knowledge of who he really is, he has failed to show respect for others and ultimately based his ego on the outcome of his own cause. According to the Ewens, he felt betrayed by the images he had seen. Miller failed to identify himself properly and now feels depressed that he let himself be influenced by Hollywood. He does not realize that it was his own choices that led him to act on film influences. Low self-esteem can be infectious. A person with poor sense of self will rely on a group of people with the same problem to acknowledge a false common factor. Being part of a group can be advantageous to boost self-esteem but it can go toward the wrong direction if the group exercises its strength by being prejudiced. Biases can take the form of skin color, the way people talk, or even how people move. Vertamae Smart-GrasvenorÃ¢â¬â¢s essay entitled, Ã¢â¬Å"When You Meet Estella Smart, You Been Met! Ã¢â¬ shows how her grandmother actually overcame the problem of prejudice by relying on her sense of self to perceive what is right and wrong. Instead of giving up eating rice to avoid being the butt of many jokes, she decided to Ã¢â¬Å"get rid of nothing that was worth keepingÃ¢â¬ and continued to eat rice and talk like a Southerner in a northern community. (232) People with poor self-image tend to cover this flaw by making it look like they are superior compared to others simply because they are Ã¢â¬Å"inÃ¢â¬ or part of a larger group. These people tend to look down on others who do not think the same way that they do. Estella Smart had been the object of many condescending comments because she refused to embrace the impractical way of life that her northern community encouraged. Comments such as, Ã¢â¬Å"Think she is something! She ainÃ¢â¬â¢t no better than nobody else! Ã¢â¬ (232) are obvious signs of jealousy that could have hurt a person who did not find strength in his own identity. However, for people like Estella Smart who know themselves better, gossiping people can say whatever they want for all they care. Another effect of advertising that is truly pushed by poor self-esteem is the fact that people tend to cover up their feelings of insecurity by buying products to make them feel better. Advertisements prey on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s insecurities and poor self-image to entice its audiences to use their products to boost their self-worth. The Ewens mention a student, Gina Concepcion, who works so hard in their local supermarket just so she can be fashionable and wear Jordache clothing. She thinks that the pants may be very expensive but they Ã¢â¬Å"fit better and she fits better. Ã¢â¬ (207). Gina obviously bases her self-esteem on how people think about her and her pants. She has become enslaved by her insecurity to belong and had fallen prey to JordacheÃ¢â¬â¢s advertising scheme. Advertising and media can be very powerful influences in everyday decision-making but the real root of the problem lies on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of self. Most people easily fall into the trap of commercials because these ads know how to use their products to cover up for whatever insecurities a person has. If a child had grown up knowing that he has the power to choose what is good and bad for him (instead of grown ups simply telling him to follow instructions), then more people would probably be more resistant to promotional schemes. Knowing that one has the power to direct oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life is essential to help people fight for what they believe in. Without the realization that destiny is simply in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s hands, it becomes easy for humans to get depressed and be suffocated by the many crimes that can often be read on newspapers or seen or heard on the news. Not knowing that one has the power to change things or fight against what is wrong can ultimately develop fear in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s psyche which has led to numerous suicide attempts and successes. Beverly JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s suicide incident that the Ewens mentioned, happened only because the woman felt helpless and hopeless. If she had enough sense of self to know that there are many ways to protect and empower oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self against crime, then she could be still alive by now. Advertising and pop culture can only devour people who have poor self-image. More often than not, commercialismÃ¢â¬â¢s effects on its victims may not be detected because the brain has been deceived to see great solutions to the insecurities that people have. Only people who have been raised to know that they have the distinct power to put direction in their lives by using their choices can inevitably resist the temptations that pop culture has in store for every one. Estella Smart knew this and overcame being a domestic helper (which she despised terribly) by learning how to sew during the evenings after her work. (Smart-Grasvenor 232) It all boils down to how people have been raised. Advertising and media have been goons that continue to affect manÃ¢â¬â¢s choices and ways of life. However, the reason behind this success rests on poor self-image. If people learn to develop the power that is within them and use them to do what is good, then pop culture would diminish. It is oneÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of self that can triumph against the negative influence of any culture. Works Cited Ewen, Stuart and Elizabeth Stuart. Ã¢â¬Å"In the Shadow of the Image. Ã¢â¬ Reading Culture. Ed. Diana George and John Trimbur. Place Published: Longman, 2006. 205-209. Smart-Grasvenor, Vertamae. Ã¢â¬Å"When You Meet Estella Smart, You Been Met! Ã¢â¬ Reading Culture. Ed. Diana George and John Trimbur. Place Published: Longman, 2006. 231-234.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Methods And Mechanism Used To Protect Business Interests Commerce Essay According to investopedia, government actions and policies that restrict or restrain international trade, often done with the intent of protecting local businesses and jobs from foreign competition. Typical methods of protectionism are import tariffs, quotas, subsidies or tax cuts to local businesses and direct state intervention. Protectionism is the economic policy of restraining trade between states through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, and a variety of other government regulations designed to discourage imports and prevent foreign take-over of domestic markets and companies (source: Wikipedia). Protectionism, policy of protecting domestic industries against foreign competition by means of tariffs, subsidies, import quotas, or other restrictions or handicaps placed on imports of foreign competitors. (source: Britannica Encyclopedia) PROTECTION OF LOCAL INDUSTRIES Why do nations impede free trade when the inhibition is irrational? One reason why governments interfere with free marketing is to protect local industries, often at the expense of local consumers as well as consumers worldwide. Regulations are created to keep out or hamper the entry of foreign-made products. Arguments for the protection of local industries usually take one of the following forms: Keeping money at home Reducing unemployment Equalizing cost and price Enhancing national security Protecting infant industry Keeping Money at Home Trade unions and protectionists often argue that international trade will lead to an outflow of money, making foreigners richer and local people poorer. This argument is based on fallacy of regarding money as the sole indicators of wealth. Other assets, even products, can also be indicators of wealth. Also, this protectionist argument assumes that foreigners receive money without having to give something of value in return. Whether local consumers buy locally made products or foreign products, they will have to spend money to pay for such products. Reducing Unemployment It is a standard practice for trade unions and politicians to attack imports and international trade in name of job protection. The argument is based on the assumption that import reduction will create more demand for local products and subsequently create more jobs. Equalizing Cost and Price Some protectionists attempt to justify their actions by invoking economic theory. They argue that foreign goods have lower prices because of lower production costs. Therefore, trade barriers are needed to make prices of imported products less competitive and local items more competitive. Enhancing National Security Protectionists often present themselves as patriots. They usually claim that a nation should be self-sufficient and even willing to pay for inefficiency in order to enhance national security. Opponents of protectionism however dismiss appeals to national security. A nation can never be completely self-sufficient because raw materials are not found in the same proportion in all areas of the world. Protecting infant industry The necessity to protect an infant industry is perhaps the most credible argument for protectionist measures. Some industries need to be protected until they become viable. Here South Korea serves as a good example. It has performed well by selectively protecting infant industries for export purpose. (Source: adopted from Sak Onkvisit, John J.Shaw, International Marketing: Analysis and Strategy) Reasons for protectionism: (source: adopted from econessays.com) 1. Infant industry argument: small firms need to be protected so as to have time to expand and gain economies of scale so as to be able to compete on an international basis later on. However so far this has happened only in big industries such as the steel industry and it gives a motive for firms to remain lazy because they know they dont have to compete on an international level e.g. steel industry in the USA. 2. Dumping to prevent firms from selling goods at a loss to destroy the domestic industry. By allowing free trade there is guarantee for low prices indefinitely because the moment one firm becomes inefficient more efficient ones will enter the market and take it away. 3. Raise revenue for the government through tariffs. 4. Prevent overspecialization and diseconomies of scale in other words over production in a country due to the need to export goods because this will also lead to misallocation of resources which is what we are trying to prevent by free trade. 5. To remove a balance of payments deficit without however tackling the problem at its root this is inefficiency. Non-economic reason for protectionism: 1. Strategic interests: some industries such as the defense industry are better to be kept domestic. For example a country cant depend on others for it weapons industry because in the case of war it would be left unarmed. 2. Political reasons: lack of willingness to trade due to political differences. For example China and Japan dont trade due to political disputes. 3. Prevention of the import of demerit goods such as tobacco and alcohol. 4. Way of life and maintenance of traditional way of living. 5. Protection against low wage economies: some countries gain comparative advantage by offering lower wages. For example people are imposing trade restrictions on China because it underpays its workers and thus no other economy has the ability to compete with her. Alternative for protectionism: 1. Offering subsidies to producers, which is an unpopular alternative because the money will have to be raised through taxes. 2. Free trade area: free trade between member countries; members charge whatever tariffs they wish towards non-member countries. Examples of these are CAFTA, LAFTA, and NAFTA etc. 3. Customs union: free trade between member countries; members must charge a common external tariff against non-member countries. The EU is the only existing such example. Policies of Protectionism A variety of policies have been claimed to achieve protectionist goals. These include: Tariffs: Typically, tariffs (or taxes) are imposed on imported goods. Tariff rates usually vary according to the type of goods imported. Import tariffs will increase the cost to importers, and increase the price of imported goods in the local markets, thus lowering the quantity of goods imported. Tariffs may also be imposed on exports, and in an economy with floating exchange rates, export tariffs have similar effects as import tariffs. However, since export tariffs are often perceived as hurting local industries, while import tariffs are perceived as helping local industries, export tariffs are seldom implemented. Import quotas: To reduce the quantity and therefore increase the market price of imported goods. The economic effects of an import quota are similar to that of a tariff, except that the tax revenue gain from a tariff will instead be distributed to those who receive import licenses. Economists often suggest that import licenses be auctioned to the highest bidder, or that import quotas be replaced by an equivalent tariff. Administrative barriers: Countries are sometimes accused of using their various administrative rules (e.g. regarding food safety, environmental standards, electrical safety, etc.) as a way to introduce barriers to imports. Anti-dumping legislation: Supporters of anti-dumping laws argue that they prevent dumping of cheaper foreign goods that would cause local firms to close down. However, in practice, anti-dumping laws are usually used to impose trade tariffs on foreign exporters. Direct subsidies: Government subsidies (in the form of lump-sum payments or cheap loans) are sometimes given to local firms that cannot compete well against foreign imports. These subsidies are purported to protect local jobs, and to help local firms adjust to the world markets. Export subsidies: Export subsidies are often used by governments to increase exports. Export subsidies are the opposite of export tariffs, exporters are paid a percentage of the value of their exports. Export subsidies increase the amount of trade, and in a country with floating exchange rates, have effects similar to import subsidies. Exchange rate manipulation: A government may intervene in the foreign exchange market to lower the value of its currency by selling its currency in the foreign exchange market. Doing so will raise the cost of imports and lower the cost of exports, leading to an improvement in its trade balance. However, such a policy is only effective in the short run, as it will most likely lead to inflation in the country, which will in turn raise the cost of exports, and reduce the relative price of imports. International patent systems: There is an argument for viewing national patent systems as a cloak for protectionist trade policies at a national level. Two strands of this argument exist: one when patents held by one country form part of a system of exploitable relative advantage in trade negotiations against another and a second where adhering to a worldwide system of patents confers good citizenship status despite de facto protectionism. (Source: Protectionist Policies, Wikipedia) SOURCE: International marketing strategy: analysis, development and implementationBy Isobel Doole, Robin Lowe Non-tariff barriers to tradeÃ (NTBs) areÃ trade barriersÃ that restrictÃ importsÃ but are not in the usual form of aÃ tariff. Some common examples of NTBs are anti-dumpingÃ measures andÃ countervailing duties, which, although they are called non-tariff barriers, have the effect of tariffs once they are enacted. Their use has risen sharply after the WTO rules led to a very significant reduction in tariff use. Some non-tariff trade barriers are expressly permitted in very limited circumstances, when they are deemed necessary to protect health, safety, or sanitation, or to protect depletable natural resources. In other forms, they are criticized as a means to evadeÃ free tradeÃ rules such as those of theÃ World Trade Organization(WTO), theÃ European UnionÃ (EU), orÃ North American Free Trade AgreementÃ (NAFTA) that restrict the use of tariffs. Some of non-tariff barriers are not directly related to foreign economic regulations, but nevertheless they have a significant impact on foreign-economic activity and foreign trade between countries. Trade between countries is referred to trade in goods, services and factors of production. Non-tariff barriers to trade include import quotas, special licenses, unreasonable standards for the quality of goods, bureaucratic delays at customs, export restrictions, limiting the activities of state trading, export subsidies,Ã countervailing duties, technical barriers to trade, sanitary and phyto-sanitary measures, rules of origin, etc.Ã Sometimes in this list they include macroeconomic measures affecting trade. Six Types of Non-Tariff Barriers to Trade Specific Limitations on Trade: Quotas ImportÃ LicensingÃ requirements Proportion restrictions of foreign to domestic goods (local content requirements) Minimum import price limits Embargoes Customs and Administrative Entry Procedures: Valuation systems AntidumpingÃ practices Tariff classifications Documentation requirements Fees Standards: Standard disparities Intergovernmental acceptances of testing methods and standards Packaging, labeling, and marking Government Participation in Trade: Government procurement policies Export subsidies Countervailing duties Domestic assistance programs Charges on imports: Prior import deposit subsidies Administrative fees Special supplementary duties Import credit discriminations Variable levies Border taxes Others: Voluntary export restraints Orderly marketing agreements Examples of Non-Tariff Barriers to Trade Non-tariff barriers to trade can be: Import bans General or product-specific quotas Rules of Origin Quality conditions imposed by the importing country on the exporting countries Sanitary and phyto-sanitary conditions Packaging conditions Labeling conditions Product standards Complex regulatory environment Determination of eligibility of an exporting country by the importing country Determination of eligibility of an exporting establishment(firm, company) by the importing country. Additional trade documents like Certificate of Origin, Certificate of Authenticity Occupational safety and healthÃ regulation Employment law Import licenses StateÃ subsidies, procurement, trading,Ã state ownership Export subsidies Fixation of a minimum import price Product classification Quota shares Foreign exchange marketÃ controls and multiplicity InadequateÃ infrastructure Buy national policy Over-valued currency Intellectual propertyÃ laws (patents,Ã copyrights) Restrictive licenses Seasonal import regimes Corrupt and/or lengthy customs procedures Types of Non-Tariff Barriers There are several different variants of division of non-tariff barriers. Some scholars divide between internal taxes, administrative barriers, health and sanitary regulations and government procurement policies. Others divide non-tariff barriers into more categories such as specific limitations on trade, customs and administrative entry procedures, standards, government participation in trade, charges on import, and other categories. We choose traditional classification of non-tariff barriers, according to which they are divided into 3 principal categories. The first category includes methods to directly import restrictions for protection of certain sectors of national industries: licensing and allocation of import quotas, antidumping and countervailing duties, import deposits, so-called voluntary export restraints, countervailing duties, the system of minimum import prices, etc. Under second category follow methods that are not directly aimed at restricting foreign trade and more related to the administrative bureaucracy, whose actions, however, restrict trade, for example: customs procedures, technical standards and norms, sanitary and veterinary standards, requirements for labeling and packaging, bottling, etc. The third category consists of methods that are not directly aimed at restricting the import or promoting the export, but the effects of which often lead to this result. The non-tariff barriers can include wide variety of restrictions to trade. Here are some example of the popular NTBs. Licenses The most common instruments of direct regulation of imports (and sometimes export) are licenses and quotas. Almost all industrialized countries apply these non-tariff methods. The license system requires that a state (through specially authorized office) issues permits for foreign trade transactions of import and export commodities included in the lists of licensed merchandises. Product licensing can take many forms and procedures. The main types of licenses are general license that permits unrestricted importation or exportation of goods included in the lists for a certain period of time; and one-time license for a certain product importer (exporter) to import (or export). One-time license indicates a quantity of goods, its cost, its country of origin (or destination), and in some cases also customs point through which import (or export) of goods should be carried out. The use of licensing systems as an instrument for foreign trade regulation is based on a number of international le vel standards agreements. In particular, these agreements include some provisions of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the Agreement on Import Licensing Procedures, concluded under the GATT (GATT). Quotas Licensing of foreign trade is closely related to quantitative restrictions quotas on imports and exports of certain goods. A quota is a limitation in value or in physical terms, imposed on import and export of certain goods for a certain period of time. This category includes global quotas in respect to specific countries, seasonal quotas, and so-called voluntary export restraints. Quantitative controls on foreign trade transactions carried out through one-time license. Quantitative restriction on imports and exports is a direct administrative form of government regulation of foreign trade. Licenses and quotas limit the independence of enterprises with a regard to entering foreign markets, narrowing the range of countries, which may be entered into transaction for certain commodities, regulate the number and range of goods permitted for import and export. However, the system of licensing and quota imports and exports, establishing firm control over foreign trade in certain goods, in many cases turns out to be more flexible and effective than economic instruments of foreign trade regulation. This can be explained by the fact, that licensing and quota systems are an important instrument of trade regulation of the vast majority of the world. Agreement on a voluntary export restraint In the past decade, a widespread practice of concluding agreements on the voluntary export restrictions and the establishment of import minimum prices imposed by leading Western nations upon weaker in economical or political sense exporters. The specifics of these types of restrictions is the establishment of unconventional techniques when the trade barriers of importing country, are introduced at the border of the exporting and not importing country. Thus, the agreement on voluntary export restraints is imposed on the exporter under the threat of sanctions to limit the export of certain goods in the importing country. Similarly, the establishment of minimum import prices should be strictly observed by the exporting firms in contracts with the importers of the country that has set such prices. In the case of reduction of export prices below the minimum level, the importing country imposes anti-dumping duty which could lead to withdrawal from the market. Voluntary export agreements af fect trade in textiles, footwear, dairy products, consumer electronics, cars, machine tools, etc. Problems arise when the quotas are distributed between countries, because it is necessary to ensure that products from one country are not diverted in violation of quotas set out in second country. Import quotas are not necessarily designed to protect domestic producers. For example, Japan, maintains quotas on many agricultural products it does not produce. Quotas on imports is a leverage when negotiating the sales of Japanese exports, as well as avoiding excessive dependence on any other country in respect of necessary food, supplies of which may decrease in case of bad weather or political conditions. Export quotas can be set in order to provide domestic consumers with sufficient stocks of goods at low prices, to prevent the depletion of natural resources, as well as to increase export prices by restricting supply to foreign markets. Such restrictions (through agreements on various types of goods) allow producing countries to use quotas for such commodities as coffee and oil; as the result, prices for these products increased in importing countries. Embargo Embargo is a specific type of quotas prohibiting the trade. As well as quotas, embargoes may be imposed on imports or exports of particular goods, regardless of destination, in respect of certain goods supplied to specific countries, or in respect of all goods shipped to certain countries. Although the embargo is usually introduced for political purposes, the consequences, in essence, could be economic. Standards Standards take a special place among non-tariff barriers. Countries usually impose standards on classification, labeling and testing of products in order to be able to sell domestic products, but also to block sales of products of foreign manufacture. These standards are sometimes entered under the pretext of protecting the safety and health of local populations. Administrative and bureaucratic delays at the entrance Among the methods of non-tariff regulation should be mentioned administrative and bureaucratic delays at the entrance which increase uncertainty and the cost of maintaining inventory. Import deposits Another example of foreign trade regulations is import deposits. Import deposits is a form of deposit, which the importer must pay the bank for a definite period of time (non-interest bearing deposit) in an amount equal to all or part of the cost of imported goods. At the national level, administrative regulation of capital movements is carried out mainly within a framework of bilateral agreements, which include a clear definition of the legal regime, the procedure for the admission of investments and investors. It is determined by mode (fair and equitable, national, most-favored-nation), order of nationalization and compensation, transfer profits and capital repatriation and dispute resolution. Foreign exchange restrictions and foreignÃ exchange controls Foreign exchange restrictions and foreign exchange controls occupy a special place among the non-tariff regulatory instruments of foreign economic activity. Foreign exchange restrictions constitute the regulation of transactions of residents and nonresidents with currency and other currency values. Also an important part of the mechanism of control of foreign economic activity is the establishment of the national currency against foreign currencies. The transition from tariffs to non-tariff barriers One of the reasons why industrialized countries have moved from tariffs to NTBs is the fact that developed countries have sources of income other than tariffs. Historically, in the formation of nation-states, governments had to get funding. They received it through the introduction of tariffs. This explains the fact that most developing countries still rely on tariffs as a way to finance their spending. Developed countries can afford not to depend on tariffs, at the same time developing NTBs as a possible way of international trade regulation. The second reason for the transition to NTBs is that these tariffs can be used to support weak industries or compensation of industries, which have been affected negatively by the reduction of tariffs. The third reason for the popularity of NTBs is the ability of interest groups to influence the process in the absence of opportunities to obtain government support for the tariffs. Non-tariff barriers today With the exception of export subsidies and quotas, NTBs are most similar to the tariffs. Tariffs for goods production were reduced during the eight rounds of negotiations in the WTO and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). After lowering of tariffs, the principle of protectionism demanded the introduction of new NTBs such as technical barriers to trade (TBT). According to statements made at United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD, 2005), the use of NTBs, based on the amount and control of price levels has decreased significantly from 45% in 1994 to 15% in 2004, while use of other NTBs increased from 55% in 1994 to 85% in 2004. Increasing consumer demand for safe and environment friendly products also have had their impact on increasing popularity of TBT. Many NTBs are governed by WTO agreements, which originated in the Uruguay Round (the TBT Agreement, SPS Measures Agreement, the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing), as well as GATT articles. NTBs in the field of services have become as important as in the field of usual trade. Most of the NTB can be defined as protectionist measures, unless they are related to difficulties in the market, such as externalities and information asymmetries information asymmetries between consumers and producers of goods. An example of this is safety standards and labeling requirements. The need to protect sensitive to import industries, as well as a wide range of trade restrictions, available to the governments of industrialized countries, forcing them to resort to use the NTB, and putting serious obstacles to international trade and world economic growth. Thus, NTBs can be referred as a new of protection which has replaced tariffs as an old form of protection. CASE 1: A case for good protectionism Bharat Jhunjhunwala (source: The Hindu Business Line) THE defeat of the NDA Government and the victory of the Congress (I) supported by the Left is one more symptom of the growing worldwide backlash against globalization. White- collar workers in industrial countries are losing their jobs to the cheap labor of India and China. Services, such as research, are now being outsourced because scientists in the developing countries are cheaper. On the other hand, workers in the developing countries are finding that their wages are stagnant while inequality is rising. The belief was that free trade leads to efficient production and also forces domestic government to reduce corruption. This provides relief to the people. Else businessmen would have to pay money to local thugs and politicians to avoid trouble. Government officers would have to be bribed to run normal business. For instance, a boiler inspector can shut down a plant for 15 days on frivolous grounds. The money paid to politicians and officers by the businessman adds to the cost of production and raises the cost of his produce say, cloth to Rs 25 a metre instead of Rs 20. The cost of production of similar cloth in other countries having good governance, however, remains low because they do not have to bribe politicians and officers. The cost of other inputs, such as cotton, machines and chemicals, remains the same in all countries because of free trade. Cloth produced in another country can conquer Indian markets if the cost of production in that clean country is Rs 20 and is Rs 25 in corrupt India. Textile mills in India will have to down shutters. Ultimately, politicians will have to reduce the money they extract from the businessmen failing which they will be killing the goose that lays golden eggs. The same applies to inefficient businessmen. Globalization will force the Indian businessman to install latest looms in order to survive. This will provide good and cheap cloth to the Indian people. Globalization, indeed, begets clean governance and efficient production. The difficulty, however, is that free trade also works in the Labor market. Say, India and another country both have clean governments and the cost of production of cloth in both countries is Rs 20 a metre. The wage rate in the other country is Rs 80 per day. The Indian businessman will not be able to pay more than this rate to his workers as otherwise his cost of production will increase and he will be priced out of the market. The country paying lowest wages wins in free trade. Free trade leads to equalization of wages rates to their global lowest levels. This decline in wages nullifies the benefits from good governance and efficient production. No wonder workers in the industrial countries are opposing free trade and outsourcing. Software programmers are finding their wage rate declining as technology makes it possible to transfer huge amounts of data at the click of the mouse. The wage rates in most developing countries are also stagnant. Workers in East Asian countries are seeing their wage rates decline due to competition from the less paid Chinese workers. Free trade works as a two-edged sword. On the one hand, it leads to clean governance and efficient production but on the other it leads to lowering of wage rates to their global minimum. What is the solution to this problem? How can the benefits of free trade be secured while creating higher wages for the workers? Protectionism enables domestic prices to remain higher than the global prices. Such higher prices can be used to support corruption, inefficient production or higher wages. The solution comes from using protection not for corruption or inefficient production but for higher wages. Suppose India were to impose an additional tax of Rs 5 per metre on cloth imports. The price of cloth in the Indian market would become Rs 25 instead of Rs 20 earlier. This margin can be taken away by corrupt politicians and officers, or used to maintain inefficient production in obsolete mills, or to raise wages of the workers. The ability lies in avoiding the first two uses and promoting the third. If the government establishes, say, a system to trap corrupt politicians and officers, promotes domestic competition to avoid inefficient production, and implements policies that lead to higher wages, then this protectionism becomes pro-people. Free trade is necessarily anti-people because it leads to low wages even if it provides good governance and efficient production. Protectionism can possibly be pro-people if applied correctly. What about exports, though? It is possible to prevent cheap imports by imposing tariffs. But how will exports be made if the domestic wage rates are high? The solution is to use the receipts from import taxes to provide export subsidies to Labor-intensive products. The higher cost due to high wages can be neutralised by the subsidies. It is clear that free trade will not lead to the welfare of the people anywhere in the world. Protectionism makes it possible to secure peoples welfare but only if applied correctly. But bad protectionism that supports corruption is worse than free trade. The challenge is to embrace good protectionism. CASE 2 FREE TRADE OR PROTECTIONISM? The Case Against Trade Restrictions by Vincent H. Miller James R. Elwood (source: isil.org) The Lure of Protectionism Ã The argument for so-called protectionism (called fair trade by some) may at first sound appealing. Supporters of protectionist laws claim that keeping out foreign goods will save jobs, giving ailing domestic industries a chance to recover and prosper, and reduce the trade deficits. Are these claims valid? Protectionism: What It Costs Ã Classical Liberal philosopher John Stuart Mill astutely observed in the last century that Trade barriers are chiefly injurious to the countries imposing them. It is true today as it was then, for the following reasons: LOST JOBS: Protectionist laws raise taxes (tariffs) on imported goods and/or impose limits (quotas) on the amount of goods governments permit to enter into a country. They are laws that not only restrict the choice of consumer goods, but also contribute greatly both to the cost of goods and to the cost of doing business. So under protectionism you end up poorer, with less money for buying other things you want
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Edouard Manet was a French painter whose work inspired the impressionist style. His art was due to his portrayal of everyday subject matter. ManetÃ¢â¬â¢s principal influences of his art were that of Frans Hals and Diego Velazquez. Manet began painting everyday subjects. He used bold brush techniques while painting his subjects. His painting Le dejeuner sur lÃ¢â¬â¢herbe in 1863 drew a lot of attention. Manet did not gain recognition until late in life, when his portraits became much sought after. http://www.renoirinc.com/biography/artists/manet.htm Manet preferred to paint the people and places he knew best. His first and second wife frequently served as models. Manet preferred to paint from life. He wanted his model in front of him. He had to achieve this by painting rather quickly so he chose to use the right colors the first time. Manet painted in patches of color to make sharper contrasts. He used a technique called Ã¢â¬Å"TachismÃ¢â¬ (Tache means Ã¢â¬Å"spotÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"blotÃ¢â¬ in French). Claude Monet was born in Paris France and then moved to Le Havre. Monet developed a reputation as a charcoal impressionist. The whole French Impressionist movement is names after a painting by Monet called Ã¢â¬Å"Impression, Sunrise.Ã¢â¬ Monet had served in the army for two years when he had to leave, so he pursued his career in art. Monet was also an impressionist artist. He became increasingly more popular as an artist. Monet painted a series of weeping willows to commemorate the many Frenchman who died in World War I. http://www.biographyonline.net/artists/claude-monet.html Monet was also a very wealthy man, he was obsessed with money and spending money. Monet was introduced to outdoor painting by Boudin which became the touchstone for his lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s work. Impre... ...if the people where alive. Manet chose to use people in his painting and Monet chose landscape for his paintings. Edouard Manet was not the very first Modern artist. Claude Monet is said to be the "Father of Modern Art" since he was the first to officially launch the Impressionist movement in 1872. Edouard Manet started off as a Realist, and did convert to Impressionism later on. In my opinion the revolutionized art because of their style of painting. They chose to use a different style of brushstroke and colors. The impact of both painters was big, but Monet had more of an impact. His Impression, Sunrise was the first painting to develop impressionism. ManetÃ¢â¬â¢s work became what was later to be known as modernism. ManetÃ¢â¬â¢s work shocked the world with some of his scandals paintings. So to me they are both equally important and had a huge impact on art today.
In Harper LeeÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, Ã¢â¬Å"To Kill A Mocking BirdÃ¢â¬ we see that maturation of some of the characters is clearly evident, particularly Scouts. We see this by the way she acts in front of Miss Maudie, Calpurnia and Mrs. Alexandra Finch. Beside her father, Scout probably respects and likes the most is Miss Maudie. The two of them have a great relationship and they both love each other very deeply. When Scout first introduces us to Miss Maudie (in chapter 5), she tells us all the nicest things about her. She talks about how much she and Jem trusted Miss Maudie and what a good friend she was. They trusted her because "she never told on them, never played cat-and-mouse with them, and because she was not at all interested in their private lives", (chp. 5, pg. 44-45) unlike most Maycomb people. This is also why Scout respected Miss Maudie so much and why she told her, "Miss Maudie, you are the best lady I know" (pg.45). Miss Maudie always made cakes for Scout, Jem and Dill, and she invited them over to eat them and also to play in her backyard. One summer, Scout spent the whole second half of the summer with Miss Maudie. They sat in the front porch, watched the sunset, talked, took care of Miss Maudie' s garden. That's when Scout became very close to Miss Maudie. Basically, Scout admired Miss Maudie. She was her hero. Calpurnia is a very important character in the novel. Scout has known her her whole life and has basically lived with her, but they weren't that close. Scout never liked Calpurnia very much, mostly because she always complained about her behavior. "She was always ordering her out of the kitchen, asking her why she couldn't behave as well as Jem when she knew he was older, and calling her home when she wasn't ready to come. There talking was like battling and one-sided. Calpurina always won, mainly because Atticus always took her side." (pg. 6). Another reason why Scout didn't like Calpurnia is because she made her practice writing. Then, when Scout's teacher in grade one found out that Scout can read and when Scout got in trouble for that, she blamed Calpurnia. At that time, she was too young to understand that Calpurnia only tried to help her and teach her so she would be literate and know more useful things. Even though this seems like a negative relationship and seems as if though it can never get better, the relationsh... ...and teaching her how to be a girl. Scout knows that she won't be able to have all the freedom and fun that she's had up until now and this is why she feels so depressed when she sees her aunt sitting in the front porch. She also knows that Aunt Alexandra may have some bad influence on Scout's and Atticus's relationship because Atticus has a lot of respect for his sister and he never confronted her about anything. Scout is afraid because Atticus always takes his sister's side, it could effect the relationship Scout has with her father and that and this could bring them apart. Throughout the novel, Atticus repeats to Scout an Jem the importance of seeing things from another point of view in order to understand what the other person is feeling. The theme of childhood is also another important one. The story takes place over a period of years, and the reader takes part in the adventure of the child growing up in a small Southern town. To Kill A Mocking Bird is a fascinating story about a young girl who sees the town through her little innocent eyes, this novel is a must for everyone to read because it displays racial tensions that are throughout out the town especially the citizens.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
MachiavelliÃ¢â¬â¢s view of human nature. Machiavelli has long been required reading for everyone intrested in politics and power. In The Prince Niccolo M achiavelli presents a unique view on governing a state. Machiavelli believes the ruling Prince should be the only authority that should determine every aspect of the state and put in effect a policy which would serve his best interests. These interests were gaining, maintaining, and expanding his political power. (Machiavelli,5). His understanding of human nature was a complete contradiction of what everyone believed and taught. Machiavelli strongly promoted a physical society and felt morality was not necessary but in fact stood in the way of an effectively governed principality. (Machiavelli,5). Although in some cases Machiavelli's suggestions seem harsh and immoral one must remember that these views were derived from his concern for the welfare of his country. At Machiavelli's time everyone believed that an individual had much to offer to the well being of the state, Machiavelli was quick to mock human nature. He truly believed that humans are not ready to serve their country unless there is a special benefit to them as individuals. Machiavelli further goes on to question the loyalty of the citizens and advises the Prince that men never keep their word to you so you should never keep youre word to them. (Machiavelli,6). However, Machiavelli did not feel that a Prince should mistreat the citizens. This suggestion is only to serve the Prince's best interests. If a prince can not be both feared and loved, Machiavelli suggests, it would be better for him to be feared by the citizens within his own principality. He makes the generalization that men are, "ungrateful, fickle, liars, and deceivers they shun danger and greedy for profitÃ¢â¬ .(Machiavelli, 54). He characterizes men as being self centered and not willing to act in the best interest of the state. When the ruler is in danger they turn against him. Machiavelli reinforces the prince's need to be feared by stating: Ã¢â¬Å" Men worry less about doing an injusry to one who makes himself loved than to one who makes himself feard. For love is secured by a bond of gratitude which men, wretched creatures that they are, break when it is to their advantage to do so; but fear is strengthened by a dread of punishement which is always effective.Ã¢â¬ ... ...w Italy beseeches God to send someone to save her from those barbarous cruelties and outrages; see how eager and willing the country is to follow a banner, if someone will raise it.18 Although Italy had become the center of intellectual, artistic and cultural development, Machiavelli did not feel these qualities would help in securing Italy's political future. His opinion was that Italy required a leader who could have complete control over Italy's citizens and institutions. One way of maintaining control of was to institute a secular form of government. This would allow the prince to govern without being morally bound. Machiavelli's view of human nature was not in accord to that of humanists who felt that an individual could greatly contribute to the well being of the society. Machiavelli, however felt that people generally tended to work for their own best interests and gave little obligation to the well being of the state. Although Machiavelli doubted that this form of government could ever be established it did appear several years after he wrote The Prince. Machiavelli has become to be regarded as "the founder of modern day, secular politics."
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Between the settlement at Jamestown in 1607 and the Treaty of Paris in 1763, the most important change that occurred in the colonies was the extension of British ideals far beyond the practice in England itself. Changes in religion, economics, politics, and social structures illustrate this Americanization of the transplanted Europeans. By 1736, although some colonies still maintained established churches, other colonies had accomplished a virtual revolution for religious toleration and separation from Church and state. In England, the Anglican Church was dominated and the other churches were suppressed. However, in colonial America, people tried to separate the church and state. One of the examples is Roger Williams, who attacked theocracy in New England. He wanted the church to be separated from the state. He was banished from the Massachusetts Bay and he built a new colony, Rhode Island with religious freedom. The other example would be the Maryland Toleration Act in which, all kind of people with different faiths could live in Maryland. The other colonies such as Pennsylvania, New York, and Carolina all had ethnically and religiously diverse populations. In a similar economic revolution, the colonies outgrew mercantile relationship with the mother country and developed an expanding capitalist system of their own. In 1660 and 1663, England passed the Navigation Acts to monopolize the trade of the English colonies. The colonies produced far more than England needed but they were not allowed to sell to other countries. Rather, England would acquire the extra products and sell them to other European countries for their own profits, which was not fair. American colonists worked very hard, they harvested the land, and sea, did manufacturing and commerce, industrialization, and plantation agriculture. Despite all of the injustices of England, their economy grew twice as fast as it did in England. Building on English foundations of political liberty, the colonists extended the concepts of liberty and self-government far beyond those envisioned in the mother country. EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s government was based on the Constitutional Monarchy, which was limited after the Glorious Revolution and Parliament gotÃ more power. However, in America, the governments were much more different than in the mother country. The governors in American colonies were trying to retain a royal image, but the legislatures followed EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s example of a limited monarchy to control these leaders. The colonies had their separate and self-government, which were well organized at the time British tried to enforce its power in America. The Confederation of New England, an intercolonial political organization established by Puritans in 1643 to coordinate government and to provide greater defense against the French, Dutch, and Indians could be a very good example of self-government. The other example would be the yearly town meeting of citizens of New England villages, which selected village officials and settled village business. As a result of this self-reliance, these colonial governments were able to fuel the later American Revolution. In contrast to the well-defined and hereditary classes of England, the colonies developed a fluid class structure, which enabled the industrious individual to rise on the social ladder. The social classes in England had always been constant or in other words fixed. If you were a member of the middle class, you could never become a member of aristocrats, the upper class. Comparing to the colonial America, the social structure was fluid in which, a lower class member could become an aristocrat by getting wealthier and working hard. Another comparison can be made between England and her colonies in the way of suffrage. In the North American English colonies, most white males would be allowed to vote by age forty. Voting rights were usually reserved for those who owned a certain amount of land. In England, however only one-third of men would ever vote. The figure dropped to nine-tenths in Ireland. In conclusions, the colonies in 1763 had changed dramatically in many aspects from those of the mother country, England. Religiously, economically, politically, and socially, the colonial people had changed and even improved on the old English ways. The treaty of Paris (resulting form the end of the French and Indian War in 1763) ended all foreign threats to English colonies in North America, elimination the coloniesÃ¢â¬â¢ need for British protection and increasing the self-reliance.
Monday, September 16, 2019
In the last decennaries several attacks to learn English in EFL contexts have appeared and disappeared as research in this country has developed. Since the 1980s, when constructivism appeared Ã¢â¬Å" with its accent on societal interaction and the find, or building, of intending Ã¢â¬Å" ( Brown, 2007, p.12 ) , several methods have come up claiming to be the best to integrate the basic elements of this theory and to be the solution for English instructors to do all their pupils learn and have fun with the mark linguistic communication. As Brown ( 2007 ) explains many of these methods are considered representatives of what is today known as the Communicative Language Approach, which is Ã¢â¬Å" an eclectic blend of the parts of old methods into the best of what a instructor can supply in reliable utilizations of the 2nd linguistic communication in a schoolroom Ã¢â¬ . ( Brown, 2007, p. 18 ) The intent of this paper is to analyse the advantages and disadvantages of using one of these Ã¢â¬Ëso called Ã¢â¬Ë communicative attacks, the Theme-Based Approach, in the context of a first-year university class of English as a foreign Language. Though the writer of these paragraphs believes that there is no such thing as the Ã¢â¬Ëperfect method Ã¢â¬Ë , and that it is a good instructor Ã¢â¬Ës occupation to take the pedagogical techniques that best suit her scholars Ã¢â¬Ë demands and her beliefs about linguistic communication instruction, she will merely measure the benefits and disabilities of utilizing the schemes proposed by this individual attack in her ain instruction context. Yang ( 2009 ) explains that the theme-based direction is normally considered within the theoretical account of content-based direction. ( p.162 ) As the name suggests, the course of study of this attack is organized around subjects or subjects which contextualize the elements of the mark linguistic communication that are presented to scholars. Many of these subjects can be derived from the capable affair contents that the pupils are larning in the different phases of their instruction. Shin ( 2007 ) states that Ã¢â¬Å" When learning English as a Foreign Language ( EFL ) at any degree, the schoolroom has to be a topographic point in which linguistic communication is non merely taught but besides used meaningfully Ã¢â¬ . ( p.2 ) Curtain and Dahlberg in their book Languages and Children: Making the Match ( 2010 ) assert that as Ã¢â¬Å" the instructor connects linguistic communication direction to bing subjects or creates language-specific subjects, the linguistic communication category is clearly an incorporate portion of the school twenty-four hours, and linguistic communications are perceived to be meaningful constituents of pupil acquisition Ã¢â¬ . ( p.1-2 ) Brinton ( cited in Shin, 2007 ) claims that a thematic course of study can supply Ã¢â¬Å" rich input for lessons that are either language-based ( i.e. , with a focal point on vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar ) or skills-based ( i.e. , with a focal point on hearing, speech production, composing, or reading ) . Ã¢â¬ ( p.2 ) Gao ( 2011 ) describes the theme-based attack as trusting on Krashen Ã¢â¬Ës linguistic communication acquisition theory which states that scholars have to be presented with sufficient comprehendible input. This input has to reflect his thought of one + 1, where Ã¢â¬ËI Ã¢â¬Ë is the scholars Ã¢â¬Ë current linguistic communication competency and Ã¢â¬Ë+ 1 Ã¢â¬Ë is the Ã¢â¬Å" input supposed to be the somewhat higher degree than pupils Ã¢â¬Ë module Ã¢â¬ . ( p.34 ) The instructor would be responsible of supplying this input and of assisting pupils to transform this input into consumption. To make this, he or she has to choose the subject and the activities related that would outdo suit the involvements and demands of the pupils. Yang ( 2009 ) adds that when taking the subject and be aftering the activities, the Ã¢â¬Å" kids Ã¢â¬Ës proficiency degree Ã¢â¬ should besides be considered. ( p.170 ) As in any communicative course of study, in the theme-based attack, the sch olar is the supporter of the procedure, so it is unthinkable to form a course of study without sing the scholars Ã¢â¬Ë involvements and demands as a starting point. In the undermentioned paragraphs the learning context will be presented together with the different facets of the theme-based attack that are believed to be applicable to this context. Nowadays most schools are increasing the figure of hours of English in their course of studies. Hence they are necessitating instructors with a high bid in the four accomplishments of the linguistic communication. Most schools are integrating English in more than one capable affair. The Escuela de Educacion of Universidad de los Andes took this demand into consideration when be aftering the new course of study and included 5 semesters of mandatory English classs. The general aims of the English course of study are Ã¢â¬Å" to heighten the four linguistic communication accomplishments through reading, discoursing and working with a choice of texts that assistance in a better apprehension of human existences and learning Ã¢â¬ ( English II, 2012 ) . Students are divided in two proficiency degrees which allow the pupils to experience relaxed every bit good as demanded in a degree that fits their proficiency. Nunan ( cited in Yang 2009 ) claims that linguistic communication is best acquired when the scholars are organized in homogenous degrees of proficiency. The theme-based attack allows the instructors to accommodate the subjects, stuffs and activities to the pupils Ã¢â¬Ë proficiency degree, which is consistent with the organisation of pupils in this context. Since the category described here is a freshmen lower-level English category, the pupils, who are to go simple instructors, are expected to bring forth short conversations on assorted subjects utilizing grammatically right, formal and informal linguistic communication, and a good bid of the English sound system. They have to show critical thought and cognition of the specific subject and related vocabulary. They besides have to be able to place the chief and secondary thoughts in a short text ( English II, 2012 ) . These aims refer to cognitive procedure every bit good as linguistic communication bid. The linguistic communication is an instrument to develop believing accomplishments. A Theme-based course of study seems really suited to let all these aims to be achieved. The English linguistic communication can be learnt utilizing the wide subject of Education, and within this, a myriad of subjects runing from simple degrees capable affairs, to larning and learning theories, or cultural cognition of the English speech production states. Ã¢â¬Å" When subjects are good chosen, pupils will be more occupied with the acquisition because they can see its intent and happen it interesting -and merriment Ã¢â¬ . ( Curtain & A ; Dahlberg, 2010, p.2 ) In other words, this attack motivates pupils to larn linguistic communications. Gao ( 2011 ) mentions the experiment carried out in The Jiang University that supports this statement. Freeman & A ; Freeman ( cited in Yang, 2009 ) confirm this thought when they express that pupils are more willing to take part in the category, seek harder, and remain concentrated, when the Ã¢â¬Å" content of the lesson is relevant and interesti ng Ã¢â¬ to them. Ã¢â¬Å" Their motive is more likely to increase Ã¢â¬ . ( p.162 ) In the instance of the context analyzed in this paper, around one tierce of the pupils take it really earnestly and understand the importance of larning English for their future calling ; one third are mean pupils, who want to larn, but do non make any excess work and, one tierce who take it merely as portion of the course of study. This is really pathetic if it is considered that intrinsic motive is most of import in the procedure of larning. The bulk of the category does non hold it in a desirable grade. The theme-based attack can be a major part to this issue. Another interesting possibility allowed by this attack is the usage of reliable stuffs. The instructor can choose reliable readings such as verse forms, rimes, short narratives, newspaper articles, academic documents, among others, that present the scholars with new vocabulary used in existent state of affairss in relation to the chosen subject. Apart from developing the accomplishment of reading, these readings can be the get downing point to pupils Ã¢â¬Ë production in English. Ã¢â¬Å" Ideally, the sorts of activities instructors design for the stuffs should travel from comprehension activities to such production activities as doing presentations to the category, or composing studies, making a category anthology of narratives, or even printing a newspaper Ã¢â¬ . ( Strong, 1995 ) Hence, the four linguistic communication accomplishments can be promoted. Besides, vocabulary related to the selected subjects is more easy learned, as Khayef and Khoshnevis ( 2012 ) proved in their sur vey carried out in Iran. Subjects besides allow pupils to show critical thought and cognition of the specific subject and related vocabulary. Curtain and Dahlberg assert that activities in a theme- based attack can prosecute pupils Ã¢â¬Å" in complex thought and more sophisticated usage of linguistic communication Ã¢â¬ ( p. 4 ) Discussion around subjects of involvement to the scholars can take them to the development of complex thoughts that involve the usage of complex cognitive accomplishments, such as analysing, synthesising, contrasting, comparing and others. These accomplishments are desirable for our pupils, non merely for their ain benefit, but for their future pupils Ã¢â¬Ë , excessively. Students in the context described know that there are high outlooks of them and that any aid required will be available. This makes them experience motivated to set their best attempt in utilizing the mark linguistic communication and take parting in the collaborative activities. Ã¢â¬Å" The pupils in a theme-based schoolroom carry through a diverseness of communicative undertakings in concerted groups in which they portion a common end working fruitfully Ã¢â¬ ( Gao, 2011, p.37 ) The disciplined environment that exists in this context would prefer this sort of work. Some of the techniques used in category are choral reading, grammar exercisings in a context, unwritten presentations of different subjects, cloze, duologues, contemplation, argument and treatment. The thought is to assist scholars use the linguistic communication more spontaneously. It is of import to see the different acquisition manners of the pupils as it is done in this class, and to take techniques that develop eloquence and truth every bit good. Most, if non all, of these techniques can be easy adopted in the theme-based attack, but most significantly, it facilitates the development of truth by incorporating the instruction of grammatical elements of the linguistic communication in a meaningful context. Ã¢â¬Å" Thematic direction avoids the usage of stray exercisings with grammatical constructions, practiced out of context Ã¢â¬ ( Curtain & A ; Dahlberg, 2010, p.4 ) . This position is wholly consistent with the manner grammar is presented in the context dealt with in this pa per, although there is a hazard of non giving adequate consideration and deepness to the syntactic elements of the linguistic communication. As future instructors, these scholars may necessitate a more profound cognition of the constructions that configure the English linguistic communication, so that they are able to work out the possible uncertainties of their future pupils. Fluency besides plays an of import function in this attack for it promotes cases of unwritten communicating. Gao ( 2011 ) confirmed in his survey Ã¢â¬Å" that the pupils under the counsel of Theme-based Oral Approach ( TOA ) are more likely to better their unwritten English abilities and more enthusiastic and interested in unwritten English learningaÃâ Ã ¦ Ã¢â¬ . ( p.37 ) Talking about subjects and subjects of common involvement, such as the 1s related to the pupils professional field or to the Anglo speech production civilization, facilitates the interaction and dialogue of significance that are described as portion of the ends of the class and that underlie the sort of activities that the Theme-based attack advocators. It is of import to retrieve that these scholars are future instructors, so the context is different from the typical linguistic communication class. They are supposed to be theoretical accounts to other pupils in the hereafter, either in the usage of the mark linguistic communication as in her attitudes. This implies an excess variable playing in this 2nd linguistic communication larning environment that can besides be assumed by this attack. The instructor is responsible of choosing the subjects and accommodating them to the different degrees of proficiency and believing accomplishments of his or her pupils. Students in this class may accommodate all the activities they are larning English with to the contexts in which they will be learning in the hereafter. Even though a theme-based course of study reestablishes the importance of the function of instructors in the acquisition procedure, it gives them a great duty in the success or failure of this procedure, every bit good. Yang ( 2 009 ) asserts that Ã¢â¬Å" theme-based instruction as an attack will non automatically do scholars go more interested in larning English, unless instructors are able to utilize interesting activities and suited stuffs Ã¢â¬ . Choosing the right subjects, stuffs, activities and forming the pupils Ã¢â¬Ë work in the right manner is what boosts larning. This can besides be said about most attacks. Possibly one of the chief factors for any methodological analysis to be fruitful is the manner in which the instructor uses it in a specific context. The theme-based attack requires that the instructor put a considerable sum of clip in be aftering the lesson. Teachers can easy experience overwhelmed with the force per unit area of finding the ends, choosing the subject, making the activities and stuffs, measuring the results and all the other characteristics involved in lesson planning. All this planning can be really time-consuming, being clip one of the most cherished and elusive hoarded wealths in a instructor Ã¢â¬Ës life. All in all, I believe that the advantages for utilizing the theme-based attack in the context described exceed by far the disadvantages. This methodological analysis can assist instructors actuate pupils to larn English as a foreign linguistic communication, advancing its usage in meaningful state of affairss that encourage pupils to develop the four accomplishments, hearing, reading, composing and speech production, every bit good as of import thought accomplishments. The costs or disadvantages affect chiefly the instructor who is the 1 responsible for be aftering the lesson. I believe that the clip invested in making so exhaustively will pay back with high involvements. The confirmation of pupils Ã¢â¬Ë acquisition is the best wages any instructor can hold. As for the grammar cognition issue mentioned as of import in this context, I think that instructors can fall back to other sorts of activities to supply excess chances to exert this component, even if it does n't suit absolutel y good in the theme- based attack. Ana Maria Reyes
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Societies that are futuristic in settings are what we call a dystopian society. Dystopia is literary the opposite of what a utopian community will be like. In dystopia, everything is distorted where people are ruled by either a strong-opposed individual through the use of militarism or technologies and also by technology themselves. Citizens of a dystopian community doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t hold their own rights and are usually treated inhumanely, creating a fearsome and dark environment. Short stories such as Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ written by Shirley Jackson typically follows a dystopian society. The author first introduces the story to be a utopian community where she describes the day as Ã¢â¬Å"clear and sunny, with the fresh warmth of a full-summer day; the flowers were blossoming profusely and the grass was richly green (Para. 1).Ã¢â¬ This entices our feeling of comfort and invites us to see what this day is all about, not knowing of what might happen in the end. The fact that Jackson first introduces us into such a calming scenery but ends it in such a misery, dehumanizes the mindset that such a Ã¢â¬Å"perfectÃ¢â¬ community can hide such monstrous activity. Dehumanization is a great deal in this short story where the villagers are blindly following the tradition of stoning the lotteryÃ¢â¬â¢s winner to death and treating the event like a festivity. Dehumanization is also seen through the villagerÃ¢â¬â¢s actions such as: Ã¢â¬Å"The people had done it so many times that they only half listened to the directions; most of them were quite. wetting their lips. not looking around (Para. 20).Ã¢â¬ Jackson creates this sense that these villagers have done it so many times that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t even care anymore and just what this lottery to be over with, so that they can go back to their daily lives. The villagers were describe as quite because they donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to make the lottery any longer than it is already and it can also be taken up as an acceptance to the events that follows. Some are wetting their lips which creates this anxiousness and ill-minded thoughts of wanting to kill someone. Excitement that they too will have a bountiful year again through the sacrifice of one of their own. Fear is yet another convention of dystopia that Jackson utilizes in this short story. Fear of the unknown by the audience and the fear of death. Fear is seen through the character of Tessie Hutchinson, who in the beginning of the story where like everybody else. She was nonchalant to the event and was conversing with the villagers like normal people would but all of this changes after she was picked by the lottery. She screams and tell everyone how Ã¢â¬Å"it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t fair, it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t right (Para. 80),Ã¢â¬ which contradicts her actions in the beginning. Fear is also seen where the villagers were Ã¢â¬Å"not looking around (Para. 20),Ã¢â¬ which describes how they individually doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to see the faces of the people who they will have to kill or know that they can be the one to die that day. The black box that contains the papers of the lottery is a symbolism of fear in the story. It presents death not only by the use of the color black but also because it holds the one paper that is the deciding factor of being the winner of the lottery. This is seen as Ã¢â¬Å"the villagers kept their distance, leaving a space between themselves and the stool (Para.4),Ã¢â¬ where they are unconsciously afraid of the lottery but doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t protest about its effects. Work Cited Ã¢â¬Å"Dystopias: Definition and Characteristics.Ã¢â¬ Readwritethink.org. ReadWriteThink, n.d Web. 18 Jan 2013 Ã¢â¬Å"The Lottery.Ã¢â¬ American Literature. N.p, n.d Web. 18 Jan 2013