Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Why Plato thinks Philosophers should be Kings Essay Example for Free

Why Plato thinks Philosophers should be Kings Essay Platos strategy in the Republic is to explicate the primary notion of societal or political justice and then parallel it to the concept of individual justice. Before he can prove that justice is a good thing, Plato must first state its definition, by showing justice in its perfect form in order to discover the true essence of it. Therefore, Socrates claims that the only way to have a perfect state is if the state has a perfect leader, thus he introduces the concept of the philosopher-king. Plato identifies political justice as harmony in a structured political body. An ideal state consists of three main classes of people: producers, auxiliaries, and the guardians (rulers); a state is just when relations between these three classes are right. Justice is a principle of specialization: a principle that requires that each person fulfils the societal role to which nature fitted him or her, and does not interfere in any other business. Socrates describes philosophers as those who love the sight of truth (475-e). He claims that what makes philosophers different from lovers of sights and sounds is that they apprehend the Forms. While lovers of sights and sounds love beautiful things, they are unable to see the nature of beauty itself. The Philosophers, on the other hand, believe that beauty exists and can see both it and the things it participates in. In order to back up this claim, that only philosophers can have knowledge, Socrates paints a metaphysical and epistemological picture. He divides the concept of knowledge into: what is, what is not and an intermediate between being and not being. This intermediate between knowledge and ignorance is what he defines as an opinion and casts it as a fallible power. Furthermore, knowledge is the strongest infallible power that is set over the being or what is. Given that only philosophers can have knowledge, Socrates emphasizes that they are clearly the ones best able to grasp what is good for the state, and so are in the best position to know how to run and govern it. Plato offers a more intuitive explanation for why the philosophers are virtuous. He idealizes them as being focused and determined because they are  fond of learning the function of the being, which does not wander between coming to be and decaying. At the end of Book IV, Plato argues that the nature of the state and the individual are the same. Furthermore, he promotes the notion that when the virtues of reason, passion, and desire act in perfect harmony the individual and consequently the state will become just. Though it is not directly stated, it is fair to make the allusion that Plato would have assumed the same for the Philosophers. Their desires also incline strongly for learning, therefore, weakening other pleasures of the soul. Their emotions and appetites no longer provide a strong impetus toward vice, making the Philosophers moderate in character. Courage also considered as an important characteristic, is defined as the power to preserve through everything its belief abo ut what things are to be feared (429-c). Since the Philosopher devotes his being to understanding the essence of universal truth, he does not consider individual human life as a priority, making him fearless of death. Even though, the Philosopher possesses all the needed virtues, Socrates fails to explain how such a special ruler will be able to relate with the common folk. A person of such immense talent would most likely be needed in other parts of the state as well, but according to Plato, he should be given the power to rule, erasing all possibilities of a Philosophers individual choice to devote his life to a different task. And while the Philosopher is portrayed as a perfect leader for the state nationally, there is no mention of why he would be so attached to the state or how international affairs would be handled. Lastly, one cant help but worry that despite having a philosophical nature and possessing all needed virtues, there is no guarantee that a philosopher would not become corrupted, as it is hard to be a good person in a bad society. Socrates explores the nature of the guardians further to describe the different types of corruption to which the philosophic nature is susceptible. Using the analogy of the seed (human soul) and its environment, Socrates argues that, in most cases, alien soil produces noxious weeds. Sophists and spurious educators are indicted in this corruption, for they create values outside and inferior to virtue. Socrates compares their morality, which derives from the masses they serve, to the understanding and rationalization of the tempers of a mighty strong beast. His analogy of the mighty beast criticizes the majority, or mass, notion of morality. What is the opinion of most men, in fact, of the world, is almost always not the opinion or should it be said, knowledge of the philosophers. The masses are neither wise, nor temperate, nor courageous; as a result, their desires do not reflect the good, because of their lack of strenuous education. And thus, because the true philosophers must hold to a minority truth or renounce their nature, they are condemned to persecution by the multitudes the very people that need them the most. Socrates seems to create a paradox: the city cannot do without philosophy, but it can also hardly tolerate it. Antagonism between the philosophic nature and the binding pressure of the multitudes ensures that a potentially great philosopher is lost or warped. No government exists in which he may utilize fully his innate and learned gifts. Often, says Socrates, the dejected philosopher seeks refuge in solitude, contrary to a previously made point that a true leader will want to lead not for power, but for fear that somebody less competent than themselves will rule. The fact that Philosophers would give up on lawlessness around them to do work quietly alone contradicts Platos description of a rightful leader. The problem of how to ease the clash between philosophers and the majority, making it possible for philosophers to assume their rightful position as rulers is, logically enough, the next topic. Erasing the state and the manners of men to achieve a clean surface on which to sketch the new plan is Socrates first, though seemingly impossible solution (the other is the philosophical education of kings). In summation, the relationship of the philosopher of the state is one of exploration and criticism. Only by balancing the traits of reason, passion, and desire will the individual being to understand notions of the greatest good. After this understanding has been reached, he or she must attempt to share these values with the citizens of the state. Unfortunately, the people whom this philosopher is trying to educate about the greatest good are too caught up with the trials of their own lives to comprehend a society in which justice is absolute. As the ultimate fate of Socrates demonstrates,  being a philosopher is not a simple task. Generally, people are uncomfortable with trading their freedom for a world in which justice is absolute. Since the masses are not entitled to the education of the guardians, a desire to be rich, powerful or famous will prevail over the values of the philosopher. His ideals, no matter how noble, will almost always fall upon deaf ears.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Educating Rita By Willy Russell and The Social, Historical And Cultural Context Of Britain In The Late 1970s :: Educating Rita russell Essays

"Educating Rita" By Willy Russell and The Social, Historical And Cultural Context Of Britain In The Late 1970's 'Educating Rita' by 'Willy Russell relates to the social, historical and cultural context of Britain in the late 1970's throughout the play and this extremely strong and believable reference to these three subjects contribute to a good piece of drama. 'Willy Russell' makes these references in everything, from the smallest detail, Rita's hair colour to the extreme stereotyping of each of the two classes. These experiences are based on 'Russell's' own life and the character of 'Rita' is a mirror of him, because of this it is a strong and realistic account of the 1970's. 'Rita' has shared the same experiences as 'Russell' in both school and work, they were both under pier pressure not to do well and school and would be singled out if they studied. Rita: "But studyin' was just for wimps, wasn't it? See, if I'd started takin' school seriously I would have become different from me mates, an' that's not allowed." Because of this attitude to school, or the attitude school gave them, both 'Rita' and 'Russell' ended up in a dead end hairdressing job, but both of them decided they would change there life and both began to break away. I think that because so much reference is realistic due to the above, an audience of 1979 or 1980 when they play was shown would have been able to relate so well to the characters, especially people in there twenties or forties now because they would be able to remember what it was like for them when they went to school or university and they would be filled with past memories and emotions, a sign of good drama, something that can evoke emotions. During the play the characters of 'Rita' and 'Frank are the biggest demonstration of cultural difference. Rita represents the working class culture and stands for what they were, a class who strived to escape their dead end jobs and make a better life for themselves, Frank, on the other hand is the representation of the working class. Although some might say he is a disgrace to his culture he is a perfect example of the middle classes, someone who has it handed to them on a plate and they take it for granted. These differences are first noticed at the beginning of the play, in 'Rita's' opening scenes. She misses the ends off of her sentences that are usually grammatically in correct; she speaks in restricted code. Frank, the middle class man speaks in grammatically correct sentences and also uses, elaborate code.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Relationship of Race and Ethnicity Essay

Former President Jimmy Carter once said, â€Å"We have become not a melting pot but a beautiful mosaic. Different people, different beliefs, different yearnings, different hopes, different dreams† (â€Å"iCelebrateDiversity. com†). The United States has grown to be a country of immigrants filled with different beliefs, cultures, faiths, and heritages. Therefore, there is a diverse ethnic population among the people of America. Theories seek to explain why ethnic distinctions are made in the first place, why some ethnic groups discriminate against others†¦, why prejudice exists, why some ethnic groups remain identifiable, and why others melt into the dominant culture. Many different theories exist concerning ethnic relations (Aguirre and Turner 32). My racial and ethnic identity comes from what these theories or theoretical perspectives have to say. There are two theories that relate to my racial and ethnic identity. The first is called the assimilation theory. Milton Gordon (1964) emphasizes, it is to â€Å"the middle class cultural patterns of †¦ white, Anglo-Saxon† culture that immigrants to the United States have had to adapt (Aguirre and Turner 33). What he is saying was that every ethnic group that has immigrated to the United States has had to change their customs and ways to adapt to the white, Anglo-Saxon culture. There are different degrees in which the different ethnic subpopulations had to make progress in adjusting to the Anglo-Saxon culture. Cultural assimilation occurs when the values, beliefs, dogmas, ideologies, language, and other systems of symbols of the dominant culture are adopted (Aguirre and Turner 33). All the ethnic groups have been culturally assimilated to the Anglo-Saxon culture. Along with cultural assimilation comes structural assimilation. Structural assimilation occurs when migrant ethnic groups become members of the primary groups within dominant ethnic subpopulations like their families, close friends, cliques within clubs, and groups within organizations (Aguirre and Turner 33). It is harder to accomplish structural assimilation than cultural assimilation because it involves access into interacting and associating with the dominant ethnic groups. Members of ethnic groups may lack more primary and personal connections with members of dominant ethnic groups even when they enter more secondary and formal structures like schools, workplaces, and political arenas. The social identity theory, also known as the psychological theory, is the most prominent psychological approach to ethnic relations. One level of the psychological theory, called the role identity, is the identity that each human being has of themselves in certain roles like being a father, mother, worker, student, and so forth. The second level of identity is self-conception and involves emotions, cognitions, and evaluations that people make of their â€Å"whole self. † A third level, and the one most relevant to ethnic relation, is social identity and it emerges when people see themselves as members of a social category vis-a-vis other social categories (Aguirre and Turner 37). For example, one kind of social identity is being male or female or being African American or Latino. Once social identities are formed, they take on a life of their own. Individuals are born into families whose members carry these identities, with the result that the young are socialized in to the prototype of beliefs, norms, and behaviors appropriate to this identity (Aguirre and Turner 38). Socialization moves past the family to friends and organizations if they have a high rate of involvement with non-family members who hold this same identity. The race of my family is Asian and the ethnicity is Vietnamese. Since I am the first generation of my family in the United States, I would be Asian-American. These theories I have talked about explain a lot about what my racial and ethnic identity is. The assimilation theory talks about being absorbed into the middle-class Anglo-Saxon culture. I think that my family has done well into adopting and mixing the Anglo-Saxon culture with our own Vietnamese culture. I was born and raised in a middle-class rural area where the population is heavily filled with white Anglo-Saxon people. I went to grade, middle, and high school where everyone around me was white and I was the only or among a few Asian students. To get along with the society around us, my family and I had to change up some customs and beliefs in order to associate properly with the white Anglo-Saxon people. Some changes my parents have made was learning to speak and write English, learning how to cook and eat American food, and learning how to live and communicate freely since Vietnam has many restrictions. I have been very fortunate to have a wide range of diverse friends and been able to join sports teams and clubs during school. The psychological theory has created identities that make me unique from the people around me. Some role identities that make me who I am are being a student, son, brother, cousin, friend, and worker. Some self-conception roles I have attained are being grateful for what I have in front of me, being generous and considerate to others, having good manners, and standing up for myself when I’m disrespected. My social identities include being male, Asian-American, Vietnamese, Pennsylvanian, and Catholic. The psychological theory has helped me determine who I am and where I belong. It also has informed me that being Asian has made me look at both the differences and similarities between the Asian and Anglo-Saxon cultures. In conclusion, these theories have really helped me understand my racial and ethnic background spectrum. They have allowed me to recognize how my family and I transitioned to the American way of life. Since I’m Asian-American, I can have the best of both worlds: the Asian music and food and the American way of living and freedom. I am very fortunate to be living in a country with so many different people with different backgrounds, beliefs, and custom. Works Cited Aguirre, Jr. , Adalberto, and Jonathan H. Turner. American Ethnicity: The Dynamics and Consequences of Discrimination. Sixth. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. , 2009. Print. â€Å"Diversity Quotes. † iCelebrateDiversity. com. Web. 2 Oct 2009. .

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Cyber Security, By Mark Rasch - 791 Words

The ISSA conference was very enlightening and interesting. Mark Rasch introduced cyber security to us from a very different perspective that I haven’t had anyone explore before. To some extent it clears and clarifies some of the decisions that have been taken resulting in the many different cases that I have read in the news regarding cyber security. The closest example that comes to mind is the Snowden case in regards to privacy and security laws. In addition to that, I concur with Mark regarding the laws that are stated that in terms of privacy are not as transparent and certain loopholes change the way these laws can have effect upon an individual, organization or an employee. As per what I understood from his initial remarks about lawmaking from his early work experience. The scenarios that Mark jumped into, being that conference a room of senior officials who have all the authority and power that they need to take certain kinds of decisions that will change things beyond our borders. It was an on-the-spot exercise that actually made me think harder and allowed me to grasp better the basic knowledge and understanding of cyber security that I have gained throughout this semester. I have been recommended to read Sun Tzu’s ‘Art of War’ as it not only covers strategic aspects of only war but the main analogy of it could be applied to an individual’s way of living and how he/she deals with the things that are encountered in one’s daily life. Keeping that in mind, hisShow MoreRelated Security, Software, and Ethics Essay4391 Words   |  18 PagesSecurity, Software, and Ethics Introduction Every day, we use computer software to perform everyday tasks. These can range from sending e-mail, balancing your checkbook, web browsing, shopping and much more. Most people dont stop to think about the security of the software that we use on a daily basis. Users are more concerned about getting their work done, and security is little more than an afterthought. Security is a very important and often overlooked aspect of software development